Microsoft Acrylic (Beta)
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Microsoft showed off a bunch of the stock Windows 10 apps with Fluent Design at Build 2017. The company has already released some of those apps to Windows Insiders, and some of the apps are also available to the public at the moment. Today, Microsoft rolled out a new update to the Xbox (beta) app which brings a touch of Fluent Design to the app.
A beta version of the new WhatsApp app for Windows 10 and 11 is now available on Microsoft Store. It is a full-fledged UWP app that looks cool and stylish thanks to an acrylic blur and other modern effects. It supports background notifications and handwriting using a touchscreen or stylus.
According to the Windows Latest report, the new design includes an updated header, acrylic effect in the menu, support for inking, and a new settings menu. Now, it also lets users filter chats. The chat filters will let users limit the app to only display messages from contacts, non-contacts, groups or unread chats. The contact filter will show messages from user's WhatsApp contact list. Under non-contacts, messages from those not on the contact list, such as business accounts, will show up.
In addition, this new version has a new interface to switch between languages and keyboard layouts with an acrylic background. Also, Microsoft made improvements to its overall performance and reliability.
While the original Beta Bond is known for its great vertical hold, BETA BOND PLUS provides different performance characteristics, making both adhesives the perfect combination for acrylic bonding. BETA BOND PLUS offers a horizontal bond that is unequaled by any other acrylic adhesive. BETA BOND PLUS absorbs powder, makes edges nearly invisible, and is tackier and more pliable than the original Beta Bond. BETA BOND PLUS is non-flammable. (This product has a shelf-life of 24 months). Removal is easy with Beta Solv or PPI's Telesis Super Solv.
Additionally, there are several minor changes in the build, including notifications now having acrylic backgrounds. There are also many bug fixes, including for one that caused the font in the taskbar previews to incorrect and another that crashed explorer.exe when using Alt-Tab.
With the change, Win32 apps will soon launch with a new acrylic title bar with a blur effect, replacing the flat white title bar. This particular feature, according to Windows Central, was already briefly previewed on a recent Microsoft livestream.
The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Brønsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores.
Dehydration of glycerol is known to occur under acid-catalyzed conditions, following two pathways: dehydration of the primary hydroxy group affords hydroxy-acetone or acetol as the main product, whereas dehydration of the secondary hydroxy group produces 3-hydroxypropanal, which can be subsequently dehydrated to acrolein (Scheme 2), an important chemical used in the industrial production of acrylic acid and amino-acids such as methionine. The economic importance of glycerol dehydration to acrolein was recently addressed in a short review,22 which also discussed the use of different catalytic systems.
A less studied approach is the glycerol oxidative dehydration, which is carried out over bifunctional catalysts in the presence of air or oxygen. The idea is to perform two consecutive reactions: glycerol dehydration to acrolein and its subsequent oxidation to acrylic acid. Another advantage of the oxidative dehydration is the possibility of continuously regenerating the catalysts via coke burning.
Deleplanque et al.34 studied the glycerol oxydehydration to acrylic acid over mixed oxide catalysts in the presence of oxygen. They were able to find up to 28% selectivity to acrylic acid over Mo-V-Te-Nb mixed oxides. The major organic by-products were acrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid. This later compound was probably formed by the oxidation of acetaldehyde. A series of vanadium pyrophosphate oxides was also tested in the oxidative dehydration of glycerol.35 Although the conversion could reach 100% in some cases, the selectivity to acrylic acid was not more than 1%, with acrolein, acetaldehyde and acetol as main products. Ulgen and Hoelderich36,37 have studied the glycerol oxydehydration over supported tungsten oxide. Although the observed conversions were high, the selectivity to acrylic acid was below 5%, with acrolein being the main product. Soriano et al.38 studied the oxidehydration of glycerol over tungsten and vanadium mixed oxides, obtaining about 20% selectivity to acrylic acid. They reported that during the course of the reaction, under the oxygen-rich feed, V4+ underwent a slow oxidation to V5+ causing a decrease in the selectivity to acrylic acid with time on stream.
These results prompted us to report our preliminary results on glycerol oxidative dehydration to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite catalysts (Scheme 3). Vanadium-containing zeolites have attracted attention for its acid and redox features, and also for their interesting properties as a catalyst.39
A control experiment with the zeolite HBEA in flowing nitrogen showed that acrolein and acetol were the main products formed, according to previously published works.23-31Figure 2 shows the conversion and selectivity of the catalysts in the oxidative dehydration of glycerol in the presence of air, at 548 K. Acrolein was still the main observed organic product, but acrylic and acetic acid could also be identified, as well as acetaldehyde, which may be produced from the catalytic cracking of 3-hydroxy-propanal, formed as intermediate (Scheme 2). There was a significant amount of unidentified products, most of them with higher retention times than glycerol, indicative of high boiling point. These products may be associated with the direct oxidation of glycerol to carboxylic acids and hydroxy-aldehydes, because they were not formed when nitrogen was used as carrier gas. The heavier products were especially formed over the zeolite with higher vanadium content and on the physical mixture of the acidic zeolite and V2O5.
At 523 K, the picture is not significantly different. Glycerol conversion is lower, as well as the selectivity to acrylic acid over the impregnated zeolites. At this temperature, acrolein is still the major organic product, but acetol is significantly formed and contributes to the increase of the selectivity to other products, as shown in Figure 3. High boiling point compounds also appeared at 523 K and the physical mixture of V2O5 and HBEA did not produce acrylic acid at this temperature either.
In an attempt to understand the selectivity of the vanadium-impregnated zeolite to acrylic and acetic acids, it was carried out an XPS analysis of the catalysts. This technique provides a semi-quantitative analysis of the outer surface of the zeolites. Table 2 shows the results, which indicated that the vanadium was well dispersed inside the pores of the impregnated zeolites. The external Si/Al ratio was slightly higher than the bulk Si/Al, measured by X-ray fluorescence, in all samples, indicating a silicon-enrichment of the outer surface. The HBEA zeolite showed, as expect, no vanadium peak in the XPS spectrum. The Si/V ratio on the vanadium-impregnated zeolites and the physical mixture was significantly higher than the bulk ratio measured by chemical analysis. The 5%V/BEAw sample showed the highest Si/V ratio, indicating a great dispersion of vanadium inside the pores. The physical mixture of HBEA and V2O5 also showed an external Si/V ratio higher than the bulk ratio, although much lower than the impregnated zeolites. This indicates that some vanadium migration into the pores may occur even with the physical mixture of the components followed by calcination at 823 K. The great vanadium dispersion into the pores in the impregnated zeolites may explain the catalytic results, because the reaction may occur in sequence. Firstly, the glycerol molecule has to be dehydrated over the acid sites to form acrolein. Secondly, the metal function must oxidize the acrolein to acrylic acid. If a great amount of vanadium is deposited on the pore mouth, at the outer zeolite surface, oxidation of glycerol may occur prior to dehydration, leading to different products. This picture may be occurring in the physical mixture, favouring the formation of glycerol oxidation products, such as the heavier products, with greater retention times than glycerol itself. These products are probably formed by glycerol oxidation at the outer surface, and may contain glyceric, mesoxalic and hydropyruvic acid, among other. 2b1af7f3a8