The three main approaches to CO2 sequestration are the following: (i) injection into the deep saline aquifers (Grobe et al. 2009; Jago et al. 2005; Kaufman et al. 2003; Perkins et al. 2004), (ii) injection into the groundwater (Bachu and Adams 2003; Becker and Ranieri 2003; Kaddour and J.E. Gertler 1999; Kaddour et al. 2006), and (iii) injection into the saline aquifers and porous aquifers (Bachu and Adams 2002; Chuang et al. 2007; Metz et al. 2005; Torp and Gale 2004). The above three approaches are based on different storage mechanisms. The first approach involves trapping CO2 as carbonate minerals precipitate. The mineral precipitation within the aquifers is controlled by atmospheric CO2 partial pressure, temperature and salinity of the water and the rock types. The second approach exploits the physical mechanism of capillary pressure within porous media (high-permeability zones) which forces the injected CO2 to move toward the permeable zones. This approach is suitable for aquifers with large permeability variation in the vertical direction. The third approach exploits the physical mechanism of the capillary pressure within porous media. The in-situ precipitation of CO2 into the host rock within the aquifer occurs because of the lower porosity and permeability of the aquifer due to the increased CO2 pressure. The capillary pressure of the porous media forces the CO2 to move toward the permeable zones (Banerjee et al. 2005; Chuang et al. 2007; Perkins et al. 2004).
Saline lakes: The environment of lakes is different from that of saline aquifers as lakes have shallower and warmer water, which allows CO2 to dissolve and not precipitate (Adams et al. 1998a). It is possible to inject CO2 into the shallow and warm lakes, but the shallow depths of the lakes are unsuitable for long term storage of the gas, and since the water is warmer, the CO2 does not precipitate. There are also other limitations imposed on the storage of CO2 in lakes; temperature, ions and nutrients (Kampman et al. 2014; Metz et al. 2005; O’Neill et al. 2003; Torp and Gale 2004).
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