Playing with glow sticks is a fun, hands-on way for your young scientist to see how energy can be transformed from stored chemical energy to light energy. By simply submerging the glowing sticks in water your child can observe how brightness produced by the chemical reaction changes, depending on temperature. Here's how:
When you mix the chemicals together by cracking the glow stick, they react to make new chemicals and release excess energy in the form of light, transforming chemical energy into light energy. How brightly the sticks glow depends on the temperature of their environment.
The next level of refining is called a cracking refinery. This refinery takes the gas oil portion from the crude distillation unit (a stream heavier than diesel fuel, but lighter than HFO) and breaks it down further into gasoline and distillate components using catalysts, high temperature and/or pressure.
The last level of refining is the coking refinery. This refinery processes residual fuel, the heaviest material from the crude unit and thermally cracks it into lighter product in a coker or a hydrocraker. The addition of a fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) or a hydro cracker significantly increases the yield of higher-valued products like gasoline and diesel oil from a barrel of crude, allowing a refinery to process cheaper, heavier crude while producing an equivalent or greater volume of high-valued products.
Canada has primarily cracking refineries. These refineries run a mix of light and heavy crude oils to meet the product slate required by Canadian consumers. Historically, the abundance of domestically produced light sweet crude oils and a higher demand for distillate products, such as heating oil, than in some jurisdictions reduced the need for upgrading capacity in Canada. However, in more recent years, the supply of light sweet crude has declined and newer sources of crude oil tend to be heavier. Many of the Canadian refineries are now being equipped with upgraders to handle the heavier grades of crude oil currently being produced. 153554b96e