Frank Rolfe started his billboard empire from his coffee table, as a fresh graduate from Stanford University. It began as a resume builder for graduate school applications, and ended with a sale to a public company 14 years later.
Using unique strategies he developed from desperate competition with much larger adversaries, Rofe eventually owned more billboard units than any private individual in Dallas/Ft. Worth. Along the way, he fine-tuned the techniques to find billboard location, rent advertising space, and sell signs and leases.
The final Management Plan for White-tailed Deer in New York State, 2021-2030 (PDF) is a product of public input, expert review, and sound science that will improve the management of white-tailed deer across New York. The plan outlines strategies to manage deer populations across a range of abundance levels and diverse deer-related impacts, both in rural upstate areas and in cities and towns in urban and suburban areas. The plan enhances programs that provide relief to landowners and other residents experiencing deer damage and conflicts, seeks to protect New York's deer from the devasting potential of Chronic Wasting Disease, and enhances New York's great deer hunting traditions.
A draft of the deer management plan was released for public review in late fall 2020 and written comments were received from roughly 2,000 individuals and organizations. We prepared an Assessment of Public Comment (PDF) describing the principal issues identified and our responses to those issues. The final version of the plan includes revisions and clarifications based on our review of the comments received. We welcome follow-up conversations with individuals or groups who seek additional background information about material that is included or excluded from the final deer plan.
The history of white-tailed deer in New York is tied closely to the patterns of human land use and development. In their 1956 document, History of the White-tailed Deer in New York (PDF), former DEC biologists C.W. Severinghaus and C.P. Brown describe the distribution and abundance of deer in New York in pre-Colonial times and from the Colonial Period through the mid-1950s. This document provides useful context to the early development of New York's deer management program.
An Evaluation of Deer Management Options (PDF) is another valuable resource for anyone interested in deer management. This document was collectively developed by the New England Chapter of The Wildlife Society and the Northeast Deer Technical Committee (NEDTC) in 1988. It was revised in 2007 by the NEDTC to include new research findings relevant to several deer management options. The NEDTC is a group of professional deer biologists from northeastern states and provinces and is committed to the study and wise management of the white-tailed deer resource.
Deer hunting provides recreation to hunters, economic benefits to many small businesses and local communities, and effective management of deer populations. It also provides biologists with important information. DEC staff inspect deer at check stations, meat cutters, and elsewhere and review mandatory "report cards." These yield information on age, sex, physical condition, and location of deer harvested. We combine this with information from fieldwork, surveys, and public input to assess deer populations and habitat conditions. We refine the deer management program as necessary to provide the best program possible.
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The Adventure Together - Hunt Georgia website contains valuable information for new hunters like how to go hunting, where to find hunter ed classes, and what licenses you'll need. There's also over 70 videos on topics ranging from planning your hunt, to selecting a firearm or bow, to how to process your game meat!
Venison is the ultimate high-protein, low-fat, organic meat. You can help get this quality protein from the woods to a local food bank, and onto the tables of those in your community that need it most. Participate by: Donating a deer to a participating processor near you, donating to the Georgia Wildlife Federation or becoming a sponsor.
Historically, deer managers concentrated on increasing deer populations by protecting antlerless deer from harvest.Recent research has demonstrated that the overall quality of a deer herd can be improved through management practices commonly referred to as quality deer management (QDM). Numerous landowners and hunting clubs across the United States have successfully adopted this approach to managing white-tailed deer populations. An increasing number of Missouri deer hunters and landowners are interested in the potential for implementing QDM strategies on property they hunt or own (Figure 1).
Quality deer management promotes the philosophy of managing deer herds in a biologically and socially sound manner within the existing habitat conditions in an area. QDM is not trophy deer management, where the emphasis is placed on producing bucks with trophy-sized antlers, nor is QDM a program that promotes shooting only does. QDM simply encourages active participation of landowners and hunters in establishing and achieving defined deer management goals.
QDM strives to produce healthy deer herds in balance with existing habitat conditions by protecting young bucks from the harvest and ensuring an adequate number of antlerless deer are harvested. A recommended antlerless harvest is determined by the following criteria:
Hunters who adopt and practice QDM become the managers of the deer herd by improving the age structure (allowing bucks to survive to maturity) and sex ratio, managing the habitat, and keeping detailed records on deer observed and harvested to ensure program success. In essence, QDM promotes sound deer management.
Bucks tend to achieve their maximum skeletal growth at 4-1/2 years old, their peak weight at 5-1/2 to 6-1/2 years old and their maximum antler size at about 6-1/2 years old. However, in some locations more than 80 percent of the bucks harvested each year are yearlings (1-1/2 years old), which means few bucks are surviving to maturity. Reducing the harvest of younger bucks, through either regulation or voluntary restraint, will allow a greater number of bucks to reach older age classes.
Even though small properties may not be large enough to contain the home ranges of several bucks, a successful QDM program is possible, particularly if adjoining landowners have similar goals and objectives (Figure 2). Cooperation is the key. Take the time to talk with neighboring landowners and encourage them to work with you in developing a QDM program. The results will begin to show when hunters or landowners begin to harvest and observe older deer on the property.
NutritionThe quantity and quality of available forage varies widely from area to area and directly influences body size, antler size, reproductive success, fawn survival and timing of the rut. Body growth, maintenance and survival of an individual deer take precedence over antler growth in a buck and over fawn production and lactation in a doe.
The minimal level of protein in forage required for maximum antler development varies with age. Research has shown that a diet containing as little as 10 percent protein can meet the minimal requirements for adequate antler development for adult bucks. Younger animals that are actively growing, however, require much higher levels of protein. For example, weaned fawns require up to 20 percent protein in their diet for optimum growth. Typically, a diet averaging 16 percent protein will allow for maximum antler development. On many properties, protein content of prevalent forages declines below 16 percent during the late-summer and late-winter months. Actively managing the habitat to provide a diversity of food sources can ensure the availability of high-quality forages throughout the year.
A topic hunters frequently discuss is whether spike yearling bucks are genetically inferior to fork-antlered yearlings. Research has addressed this question in many locations of the country, but results vary and researchers are still not in complete agreement. Some studies suggest that yearlings with larger racks (six to eight points) will produce antlers with a higher average gross Boone and Crockett score at maturity than yearlings with smaller sets of antlers (spikes and forked-antlered).
Research suggests that yearling bucks with small antlers (two- or three-pointers) are able to produce quality racks if given the opportunity to mature, assuming nutrition is not a limiting factor. Even if a local deer herd has poor habitat conditions, buck size can be increased by allowing bucks to reach older age classes (4-1/2 to 5-1/2 years old). This will eventually lead to more mature bucks in a given area. Remember this simple fact: Let him go, and he will grow.
A doe entering estrus (heat) is receptive to breeding for at least 24 hours, and perhaps longer if not bred during the first cycle. While in estrus, a doe may be tended by one or more bucks for a day or more. If a doe is not bred during her first estrous period, she may recycle in about 28 days. Over time, traditional hunting practices (that is, bucks only or limited doe harvest) result in overpopulated deer herds skewed heavily in favor of does, many of which are not bred during this first estrous cycle. This overabundance of does coupled with nutritional limitations can lead to prolonged breeding and fawning seasons.
Adequate doe harvests can create a more even sex ratio and result in a greater percentage of does being bred during their first estrous cycle. This can bring about a shortened, more intense rut. When bucks are allowed to survive to maturity, a dominance hierarchy is established and real competition occurs between mature bucks for breeding rights. With a balanced sex ratio and improved age structure, rutting activity is pronounced, with increased signpost rubs and scrapes, and hunters experience a noticeable and exciting rut. 2b1af7f3a8